This report is also available as an Acrobat file.
Authoring and Design for the WWW
When information is sent from one computer to another, the maximum speed
at which it can travel is dictated by the capacity of the link as it were the
diameter of the pipeline. Bandwidth is therefore measured as an amount of
data per second. For a given route from one computer to another, the
maximum speed of data transfer is dictated by the point of worst bandwidth
in the chain. Transfer rates are seriously affected by network traffic, so vary
depending on whether use is at peak times or quiet times.
The software which enables the user to find Web documents and use them is
a Browser. Browsers are available for different kinds of computer. The
simplest will work on a small inexpensive computer, though it must of course
be connected to a network. As more complex multimedia documents are
published on the Web, larger, faster computers are required to support the
A picture can be a Web hypertext anchor as easily as a word. However,
HTML does not inherently support pictures which trigger different links
depending on where they are clicked. These are clickable maps, and currently
require three components on the server: the image, a map file specifying
which regions do what, and a CGI to handle the process.
Anything displayed on a computer which supports only 256 colours (the
most common figure) will have its colours assigned to the particular 256
colours available at the time, dictated either by the machine's operating
system or the current application (such as a browser). This is the colour table,
also known as the palette or CLUT (colour lookup table)
The colours in a graphic which was prepared using one colour table will look
wrong (often completely wrong) if represented using another lookup table.
This can happen if the colours in the originator's palette are not successfully
recreated for the user by the browser package. It is vital to use a suitable
palette when preparing images for the Web, and to test images on a variety of
machines. See the Web pages listed under Technical Details in Web
Compression is an essential tool in overcoming the problems of bandwidth.
Files on the server are compressed, transmitted in compressed form, and
decompressed at the destination. Time is used up in the decompression
process, but this compares favourably with the delays caused by slow
downloading. Different type of data are compressed in different ways. See
A picture file of 100K uses as much data as 17,000 words. While pictures
may have advantages both in term of conveying information and enhancing
the look of a Web page, they should be kept to file-sizes (after compression)
For a picture which occupies all of a standard display, 640 pixels wide by
480 pixels deep, the number of bytes required before compression is 300K.
This assumes that the picture uses one byte (8 bits) for each pixel. Such a
bit-depth' will give an adequate representation of most images, and is
standard for GIF files, commonly used on the Web. Using more bits per pixel
would mean a greater amount of data to be transferred: for 16-bit, twice as
much as for 8-bit; for 24-bit, three times as much. A disadvantage of using 8-bit
colour is that it involves the use of colour tables.
For two useful sites on graphics compatibility and JPEG and GIF file-formats for
the Web, see the Technical Detail section of the Web Resources.
Graphics paint and draw
There is an important distinction between graphical information stored
as pixels, units of fixed size representing colour and tone, here called
paint graphics, and that stored as the geometry and other attributes of drawn
Graphics on the Web have been dominated by paint format images stored as
GIF or JPEG files. However, as publishers and users become frustrated by
their limitations, draw formats will become more common.
The distinction between paint and draw graphics has implications for the way
in which graphics are originated, edited, stored and displayed. Draw files
consume file-space on an object-by-object basis, so simple images are
economical to store, complex ones more extravagant. They are often more
economical than equivalent paint images. For the Web, the single most
important disadvantage of paint images is that their resolution is set when
they are created. Even if a browser or a plug-in provides a facility to zoom in
on an image for a closer view (most do not) eventually the user will only see
bigger and bigger pixels. For a draw image however, the geometry can be
scaled in a much more useful way, for example allowing a user to study detail
in a large diagram at one moment and get an overview of it the next. When a
draw object is enlarged, it will be redrawn on the screen with acceptable
Many kinds of images, particularly photographic, cannot only be represented
in paint format, but for any sort of diagrammatic information draw formats
are preferable. File-formats which can represent drawn imagery include
Acrobat and Shockwave for Freehand.
Helper applications were the forerunners of plug-ins. While plug-ins deliver
foreign' file types within the main browser, helper applications open a
separate window for their own display. Helper applications can normally also
be used independently of the browser, unlike plug-ins.
Text for the Web is marked up' using HTML, the Hypertext Markup
Language, which is an informally agreed (but developing) standard.
Originally authors and publishers were obliged to get to grips with the details
of HTML, but increasingly they can rely on software tools which protect
them from this level of detail.
Hypertext is text (and these days other media too) delivered in an interactive
electronic environment. Users on viewing one part of a hypertext can interact
with parts of it (for example by clicking the pointer over words, headings or
pictures) to view another related document.
HTML was designed with hypertext in mind, and text is till the skeleton on
which everything else hangs. Hypertext linking in HTML is more sophisticated for
text than for other media types: using text, it is easy to make
structures where individual parts of texts (words, phrases) lead to specified
parts of other texts. However, when it some to other media, this is not so
easy. It would be very difficult within the Web to make a structure for filmic
sequences, where a particular frame in one movie linked to a frame in
another. Similarly, while clickable image-maps allow one picture to have
various discrete active areas, it would be difficult to jump to a particular part
of another picture (or even of the same picture).
Outliner packages allow users to switch between top-level views of texts and
more detailed views. Unlike some proprietary hypertext systems, HTML
does not easily support this idea of folding and unfolding levels of detail.
A page' on the Web is one chunk of information having its own address' or
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) so that the user's computer can find it. A
page will be a single file on the server, but may have embedded in it other
files such as graphics, sounds and animations.
There is no limit to the length of a page: the term does not denote a unit of
fixed size as in the pages of a book.
Many software packages of all kinds have become modular to the extent that
they can be enhanced with additional functions by mini-programs which are
connected to them. A Web browsers which support plug-ins does not itself
need to be able to handle all conceivable types of data, since a special
requirement is catered for by the appropriate plug-in. Example uses include
sound, increased interactivity and the display of video. The plug-in must be
installed by the end-user. Some data types also require special software on
the server where they are sited.
Plug-ins are not normally usable independently of the browser.
For documents to be available on the Web, they must be stored on a suitable
Server. This is a network-connected computer of moderate to high specification,
and runs a Server Application a software package which is capable of
responding to requests for files which it then transmits to users.
A site on the Web uses a Server to offer a collection of related Web pages.
Not all the pages which notionally comprise a single site need actually be on
a single server, or even in one physical location.
All computer data, whether graphics, text, sound, video, is stored in similar
digital files which are measured in bytes and their multiples.
The size in bytes affects:
Of these three, the most important for the Web by far is the transfer rate,
because the speed with which data can be moved from the server to the user
dramatically affects the usability. If users have to wait too long for information, or
for a response to an interaction, they will usually give up. Significant
improvements in transfer rate can be achieved using a variety of compression
- memory usage, while residing in the active working memory of the Web user's computer
- storage, for example on the Server, or on the disc of the user's computer if for any reason it must be stored there while being processed
- transfer rates, the speed with which a file can be transferred from the server to the user's computer
Tables are grid-like structures containing other elements. The grid itself need
not be visible. Tables can be used to position elements more precisely on the
Web page than by other means, but at the cost of decreasing the flexibility
with which the information can fit into different displays.
Testing of a Web site includes both technical testing, to ensure that it works
in all respects, and user-testing, to ensure that it achieves its intended
purpose. See The Design Process (p72)
Text is very economically stored on computers, especially in unformatted
form (with no information about position, style, typeface etc). The average
length word (five letters plus its following space) occupies 6 bytes. So ten
thousand words occupies 58K, and two PhD theses each 80,000 words long
would easily fit on a single floppy disc (capacity 1.4Mb).
Text in computer graphics represents a special case of the difference between
Paint and Draw (see also Graphics). Most importantly, draw text is live' text,
which can be searched, sorted and generally manipulated as text. Paint text,
on the other hand, while it is originated using text-editing tools, is not stored
in the computer as text but as a pixel-based graphic: it is just another picture.
Live text can be
- created or altered by the end-user
- created or altered by a computer program
- converted to the spoken word by a text-to-speech program
Since live text is rendered onto the screen each time the text is viewed, its
appearance will suffer greatly if the font information (dictating the correct
shape and spacing of the letter forms) is not available every time it appears.
The commercial nature of fonts is one of the principal difficulties with which
any system for the transfer of electronic texts must deal.
The advantages and disadvantages of paint text are essentially the opposite of
those for live text.
- Paint text cannot be sorted, searched, altered or spoken since it is not really text.
- However, it has the great advantage that whatever font was used to create it, it will always have the appearance originally intended. In addition, in the current absence of facilities for live anti-aliasing of text in Web browsers (blending the edges of the letterforms with their background in order to disguise the jaggedness of the pixels) paint text which has been previously anti-aliased in a paint package will generally have a more acceptable appearance.
Most operating systems for desktop computers now have optional extensions
which convert text to the spoken word, with greater or lesser realism and
sophistication. Text which is really graphics cannot be spoken in this way.
Uniform Resource Locators are internet addresses comprising three elements
1 the protocol, which indicates what kinds of messages can be exchanged 2
the domain name, which identifies the server using a unique address 3 the
pathname or location on the server where the relevant file or other resource is
WWW, the Web
The Web is one application of the Internet which, by linking up networks,
provides connection of computer to computer around the globe. Originally
mainly textual, the Web is now a multimedia publishing mechanism which
allows anyone with a Server to make documents available to other computer
users. The kinds of publishing' of which the Web is capable are more varied
and flexible than the term implies; also, there are many users of the Web
which need not be World Wide'.
Virtual Environments Visualisation