Worldwide, there is a significant level of activity in the U.S.A., Europe and Japan. Some of the laboratories and companies working on VR are listed here. The list is not meant to be exhaustive, but gives some indication of the scale and scope of activities elsewhere. The important issue of funding levels is hard to estimate reliably with the information available to us, however it can be noted that there appears to be a substantial military involvement in some cases.
In the U.S.A., leading laboratories include Brown University (3D manipulation, ), Columbia University (3D visualisation, ), Georgia Tech (CSCW and visualisation, ), University of Illinois (projection based virtual environments, ), MIT (virtual world simulation, [5,6]), NASA AMES (visualisation, ), the Naval Postgraduate School (distributed simulation, ), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (walk-throughs and hardware design, ), and the University of Washington (training systems and environments, ).
In Europe , there are VR centres at the Fraunhofer Institute in Darmstadt (VR toolkits and applications, ), the Laboratoire d'Infographie in Laussane (3D interaction, ), Delft University of Technology (VR interfaces, ), the Swedish Institute of Computer Science (VR operating systems, ), the French National Institute for Audiovisual Applications (televirtuality, ), and at the European Space Agency in the Netherlands (training and simulation, ).
In Japan, several academic and commercial groups are engaged in VR research and development, including the University of Tokyo (input devices, ), NEC (CAD systems), Toshiba (architectural visualisation) and Matsushita (design applications) [19,20,21].
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